I'm not sure you've got Scaler or Clamp functions absolutely right there chap.

Scaler is another word for "single number". So functions with the scaler name use numbers. Colour uses shades of grey (which from true black to true white equates 0 to 1, BUT, these colours in TG can in fact go into negative black and plus white. ie a value of 1.1 or 3 or 25 or 100,00 still looks white, anything below 0 will still look black). Clamp functions in their simplest form cut off anything above white or below black, or 1 & 0 in numerical terms. There is a clamp function that allows you to set the numerical cutoff points if you want a wider range.

The 0 to 1 concept is quite usefull to get your head around, because all the trig functions like Sine, Cosine, Tangent etc always output a value between 0 and 1, regardless of their input. The 0/1 concept is also usefull for creating logic arguments.

So if you wanted to increase the 'height' (amplitude) of a Sine wave, (as it's basic maximum value is 1, which in TG terms is one metre), you would have to multiply the output of the sin node.

If you want to increase the 'spacing' (frequency) of those peaks, you would divide the input to the sin function.

I'm warbling now, but another little gem to use is the modulo node. What this does, is break up an input value into divisional sequences. So if I wanted a Get Position to give me values between 0 & 360, I would set up the input2 of a modulo node to be 360, which would result in 361=1, 721=1, 381=1 etc. This is usefull if you want to have control of the phase into a trig function, where this number has to be converted from degrees into Radians. eg, if I want something to happen at halfway through a Sine cycle, I could use a conditional scaler node to check for values >= 180. Which is one of the methods I'm trying to use in generating shore waves at the moment.

I think one of the best ways of finding out what you can do with these functions, is grasp what is happening in a simple set up, then go through the wiki and have a look at all the other function descriptions (some are better than others, wink/nudge). It's a good way of understanding possible solutions to a problem you've had or imagine.

If I get some time, I could have a crack at doing a step through with pics.